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The compositional structure of poetic texts
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The aim of the article is to figure out the types of compositional structure of poetic texts in terms of point of view theory. In the place available the analysis is done on the material of R. Frost's dramatic narratives. Following Bakhtin, Voloshinov, Uspensky we mean by composition the arrangement of contents by specifying point of view. This approach aims at investigating the interrelations of points of view in their various aspects. It is interesting to find out what kinds of relationship may occur between them, what types of points of view are possible.
The points of view from which the narration is conducted may be considered from different planes or levels: axsiological (evaluative), phraseological (types of speech acts are meant), spatial and temporal position of the one who produces the description of events, psychological (subjective or objective narration). Although the point of view is itself nonverbal it must be conveyed through linguistic means. Our main objective is to figure out linguistic means used on different levels or planes to express this or that point of view. We assume that there should be some regularities which determine the formation of this or that compositional structure of a poetic text. There must be some relationship between the patterning of viewpoints on different planes.
The analysis of R. Frost's poetic texts in terms of point of view theory has led us to the following conclusions:
- poetic texts may be classified into simple, complicated and mixed compositional structures.
Simple is in no way equivalent to primitive. Simple poetic structure is a text in which the narration is conducted from one point of view and with one type of narration. These structures are presented in some dramatic monologues and lyrics.
Complicated compositional structure presents itself blurring of subjective and objective narrations, blending of points of view, their contamination on different levels. Mixed structures combine contaminated and dispersed points of view. The most favourite R. Frost's technique is simultaneous use of author's and narrator's (mainly protagonist's ) points of view in expressing the main idea of the text. Thus in «Mending Wall» the message of the poem «there's something repugnant in the idea  of keeping or setting wall between people» is implemented in different statements uttered by various persons. The verse begins with the author's point of view: «Something there is that doesn't love a wall». This thought is confirmed by he narrator's viewpoint expressed in similar parallel structures in the middle of the verse (line35) and supported by synonymous sentence «He moves in darkness as it seems to me» at the end of the verse (line42). Contamination of the viewpoints on the axiological and phraseological planes are conveyed linguistically by foregrounding (inversion), shift of the articles, demonstrative 'that', the use of the same tenses. The main idea «Something there is that doesn't love a wall» is rendered by convergence of two compositional structures and blending of author's and narrator's viewpoints. Their positions converge on spatial and temporal levels foregrounding the message. The viewpoint of a minor character, the neighbour, is contrusted to that of the author's and the narrator's. The neighbour is characterised by a single statement, iterated and reiterated, while the narrator's is developed through the more whimsical banter. He quizzically asks his neighbour why they should be doing the unnecessary; then teases him for his dogmatic assertion. But the repetition of meanigless dogma «Good fences make good neighbours» symbolises the character of the neighbour.




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